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Home / E-Journal / Understanding Homeoprophylaxis / Arsenic Album as Genus Epidemicus of Typhoid Fever - A Study

Arsenic Album as Genus Epidemicus of Typhoid Fever - A Study

Jun 06, 2020 | Research Papers, | by Dr. Aparna Balantrapu,


Dr. Aparna Balantrapu JSPS Government Homoeopathic Medical College, Hyderabad

> Author Affiliations


Background: Typhoid fever is the result of systemic infection mainly by Salmonella typhi and S. Paratyphi A or B. The disease is clinically characterized by a typical continuous fever for 3 to 4 weeks , relatively bradycardia with involvement of lymphoid tissues and considerable constitutional symptoms . The disease may occur sporadically, epidemically, or endemically. Typhoid fever can easily spread and become a propagated epidemic. The global situation of epidemics needs concerted research from all systems of medicine. In Conventional system morbidity is considerable, and an increasing tendency to antibiotic resistance means that some cases are difficult to treat and end up in complications. There are a number of medicines cited in homeopathic literature which can be used as curative as well as prophylactic for typhoid fever. A study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of selected Genus epidemicus as curative and prophylactic medicine in typhoid fever.

Methodology: In this study 104 patients were screened out of which 30 were enrolled on the basis of clinical history, clinical signs and symptoms and investigations especially widal positive cases. Homeopathic Genus epidemicus "Arsenic album" was selected on the basis of totality of symptoms. Response to treatment was assessed on the behalf of widal test and improvement of symptoms presented.

Result: Arsenic alb (Genus epidemicus) had shown its curative as well as the preventive action.

Conclusion: The findings are encouraging to open avenues for further studies on using genus epidemicus for treatment and prevention of epidemic diseases.

Key words: Typhoid Fever, Homeoprophylaxis, Genus Epidemicus, Arsenicum album.


Infectious diseases are still persisting as major health problem in spite of national programs for control of these diseases for almost half a century now.

Public health is concerned with disease prevention and control at population level, through organized efforts and informed choices of society organizations public and private communites and individuals.

The global situation of epidemics needs concerted research from all systems of medicine, Drug resistant strains of organisms are emerging which are variants of the existing strains of the infectious agents, are more virulent and cause a more severe form of the previous illness.

Homoeopathy is based on natural laws and so capable of preventing and curing all sorts of natural diseases. Homoeopathy stimulates the immune system to become stronger and to fight against disease. The homeopathic remedy will allow the vital force to immediately deal with any exposure to the agent. The remedy removes the impediments that otherwise would prevent the vital force from responding to the energetic challenge of an infectious disease.

In conventional system vaccination is given by introducing the living or weakened microbe in body, but homoeopathic remedies stimulate, arouse and upgrade Vital Force to an active and responsive stage.

Therefore, this study was done with the intention to, show the effectiveness of homoeopathy as both preventive and curative in epidemic diseases, by finding out genus epidemicus and testing this genus epidemicus on cases, as well as on persons who are not completely exposed, to disease but living in that area and are prone to disease.


Patient and Settings

The study was conducted at the out patient department of SIR RONALD ROSS INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES [ FEVER HOSPITAL], at Nallakunta, HYDERABAD. The patients coming to the OPD were screened for Typhoid symptoms. Male and female patients of all age groups and different socio-economic status and occupation with clinically diagnosed cases of typhoid fever were enrolled in the study.

Patients with complication of enteric fever like bowel complications, septicemia etc. or the patients with any chronic disease on active treatment are excluded from the study. Patients underwent investigational screening (USG-whole abdomen and pelvis, electrocardiogram, kidney function test, liver function test, stool for occult blood, CBC and widal test) for ruling out exclusion criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient before inclusion in the study.

A detailed case history was recorded in predesigned case taking proforma. The symptoms of all 104 patients were collected and recorded for analysis. The symptoms were analysed and repertorized by Boger Boenninghausen repertory. The final medicine was selected in consultation with materia medica. Arsenic album was found as the most suitable genus epidemicus.

Symptoms collected are -

1 Symptoms Presented in
2 Chills ascending 16 persons
3 Chills descending 43 persons
4 Chills from back to spine to upper part of body 22 persons
5 Chills from abdomen 03 persons
6 On drinking water chills 11 persons
7 After drinking water chills 06 persons
8 On eating food chills 02 persons
9 Chills on putting the feet on the floor 02 persons
10 Chills ameliorated by covering 38 persons
11 Chills more at night time 14 persons
12 Fever more at night time 46 persons
13 Fever more at evening 01 person
14 Fever more at afternoon and at night time 01 person
15 Fever more in morning and evening 01 person
16 Fever more at afternoon evening 01 person
17 Fever more in afternoon 01 person
18 Loose stools watery in consistency during fever 01 person
19 Passage of stool immediately after eating during fever 04 persons
20 Loose stools on drinking water in during fever 01 persons
21 No passage of stools during fever 02 persons
22 Nausea and vomiting during fever 45 persons
23 Pain over head region during fever 70 persons
24 Thirst decreased during fever 32 persons
25 Thirst increased during fever 10 persons
26 Appetite diminished during fever. 50 persons
27 Sleep diminished during fever. 52 persons
28 Weakness during fever 55 persons
29 Pains all over body especially bone pains 45 persons
30 Increased pulse during fever 70 persons
31 Cough with greenish yellow expectoration during fever 01 person
32 Cough with white expectoration during fever. 08 persons
33 Cough with green white expectoration during fever 03 persons
34 Cough with yellow white expectoration during fever. 06 persons
35 Cough without expectoration during fever 13 persons
36 Heat from head to down 80 persons

Totality of the symptoms constructed from the above data for Genus Epidemicus:

  • Chills, descending ; upper part of body to legs to spine to back
  • Chills , from back to spine to upper part of body
  • Chills > by covering
  • chills more at night
  • fever more at night
  • Pain over abdomen during fever
  • pain over head region during fever
  • On drinking water chills used to aggravate
  • Loose stools watery in consistency
  • Vomitings during fever and nausea also
  • Thirst decreased during fever
  • Appetite decreased during fever
  • Sleep decreased during fever
  • Weakness severe during fever
  • Cough during fever, no expectoration
  • Pains all over body sore and bruised during fever
  • Pulse rapid

From the above totality following rubrics were selected for the repertorization, using BBCR repertory

  1. FEVER- Pathological types- typhoid fever
  2. CIRCULATION- Pulse- Pulse- quick
  3. CHILL- Chill – descending
  4. CHILL- Chill , etc – time – night
  5. CHILL- Partial chill- on back- proceeding from
  6. CHILL – Shivering – in general
  7. CHILL- Chills , etc aggravation – drinking
  10. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL- Partial heat – partial heat- head on- proceeding from
  11. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL – Concomitants –appetite – aversion- food in general
  12. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL – Concomitants –thirst – thirstlessness
  13. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL – Concomitants – head –pain , headache
  14. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL – Concomitants – Stomach- Stomach –pain in general
  15. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL – Concomitants – nausea and vomiting- vomiting in general
  16. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL- Concomitants – stool- diarrhoea
  17. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL – Concomitants – cough – expectoration – without
  18. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL- Concomitants – sleep - sleeplessness
  19. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL- Concomitants – Sensations and generalities- exhaustion [weakness]
  20. HEAT AND FEVER IN GENERAL – Concomitants –bones- bones, pains.

Repertorization Result

Drug Rubric covered / total rubrics Marks obtained
Arsenic album 17/20 56
Pulsatilla 17/20 52
Rhustox 16/20 53
Sulphur 16/20 41
China 16/20 37
Natrum mur 16/20 35
Nux vomica 15/20 50
Phosphorus 15/20 41
Bryonia 15/20 38

Selection of Medicine

Arsenic album was selected as the remedy of choice because not only it scores highest number but covers the totality of typhoid symptoms.

  1. Arsenic alb was finalized and administered to 30 patients diagnosed with typhoid fever, from March to May 2019 and follow up had been done.



Observations and Results

Result of Genus epidemicus (curative) for cases of typhoid
Condition No. of Cases Percentage
No reappearance of symptoms, after taking genus epidemicus, in no of cases 27 90
Reappearance of symptoms, in spite of, taking genus epidemicus , in no of cases 3 10
Total 30 100
Result of Genus epidemicus as a Preventive
Condition No. of Cases Percentage
Symptoms observed in no of persons after taking genus epidemicus as a preventive 19 82
Symptoms not observed in no of persons after taking genus epidemicus as a preventive 4 17.3
Total 23 100

Acute disease follow up (Curative)

3 months follow up was observed and it was found that Fever subsided with no weakness. 90% of cases had not suffered with reappearance of fever, after the administration of Genus Epidemicus, only three cases out of 30 had suffered with reappearance of fever after giving genus epidemicus.

Arsenic album as Preventive

Arsenic Alb was also administered as a preventive to 23 persons in the month of May at Gudarigunta, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh to the high risk persons considering the family history or past history positive for typhoid or ingestion of contaminated food, water or living at Gudarigunta, Kakinada Andhra Pradesh, typhoid exposed area. ARSENIC ALB 200 3 DOSES HAS BEEN PRESCRIBED IN THE MONTH OF MAY 14/5/19. Follow up had been done for every 7 to 10 days, subtle appearance of cold, slight rise of temp, then sac lac for 10 days, automatically subsided the symptoms.

Since this was a small study, it was proposed to be conducted on a minimum sample of thirty patients. 104 patients were screened and 30 patients (22 males; 12 females) were enrolled (considering 10% drop outs). However, there were no dropouts and the data of all 30 cases is presented here.


Homoeopathy can prevent and can also treat Epidemic diseases, by administering Genus Epidemicus. As the observations are obtained from limited number of samples in available time period. Further study should be carried taking larger sample size.


  1. The study therefore conclude that Hahnemannian suggestions on Genus Epidemicus are quite relevant and effective in present era.
  2. In view of new and reemerging old infectious diseases in endemic and epidemic forms, homoeopathy can be utilised effectively by the authorities
  3. The effectiveness of homoeopathic preventive medicines needs further clinical, molecular, biological models invitro studies as well.
  4. HP appears from the literature to offer a level of protection around 90%, and appears to be an extremely safe method of prevention against infectious diseases


The study was carried out under the kind guidance of Dr. G. Srinivasulu, Prof. and H.O.D., Department of Organon of Medicine, JSPS Government Homoeopathic Medical College, Hyderabad.

Posted in Dr. Aparna Balantrapu, Research Papers, Understanding Homeoprophylaxis on Jun 06, 2020

How to cite this article:

Dr. Aparna Balantrapu, Arsenic Album as Genus Epidemicus of Typhoid Fever - A Study. Homeopathic Horizon [Journal on the Internet]. 6th June 2020; 1(2) :homhorizon_1075_20 Available from:https://homeorizon.com/homeoprophylaxis/arsenic-album-genus-epidemicus-typhoid-fever. [Accessed 2023 Sep 23]

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