The recent Covid-19 pandemic is proving to be one of the most fearsome scourge for humanity. Its impact has been rightfully expressed by Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director General, World Health Organization "COVID-19 has robbed us of people we love; It's robbed us of lives and livelihoods; It's shaken the foundations of our world; It threatens to tear at the fabric of international cooperation"
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging from common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
The first case of COVID-19 was reported from Wuhan, China, on 31 December 2019. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic.
Presently as on 3rd July, 2020 it has spread rapidly across 216 countries infecting 10,719,946 people and causing death of 5,17 337 people over the globe. As mentioned by WHO Director-General in his media briefing on COVID-19, dated 7 July 2020, "The outbreak is accelerating and we have clearly not reached the peak of the pandemic"; the situation is still dismal. Today, with no approved treatment plan or vaccine for the novel coronavirus infection, and also none in sight in near future the situation becomes no better. It is time to ponder what else can be possibly done to control the crisis.
China adopted its Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treatment purpose, and their evidence basis so generated served as guideline for other countries to adopt the TCM in COVID-19 treatment protocol. Contrarily, Homeopathy inspite of its potential in treating the past epidemics and pandemics has lacked a place in treatment protocol, and this dear friends is a matter of deeper evaluation.
Time and again Homeopathy interventions have proved effective in combating epidemics and pandemics but still our contribution in the Covid-19 has been questionable. The Use of Homoeopathy medicines like Ars.alb, Camphor, Influenzinum was found to be effective in random cases but lack of universal consensus affected our claim of proving effectiveness of Homeopathy in Covid-19. This demands serious analysis and systematic workout on a clinical research methodology with continuous evaluation of the outcomes to strengthen the evidence base of Homeopathic interventions.
Any positive lead in this regard would be a breakthrough to equip us to plan a strategy to combat Covid rampage. It would further help in establishing homoeopathy on the planning chart during epidemic outbreaks. Presently, the use of Nosodes has emerged as an promising intervention advocated by some Homeopaths for Covid but how far does its usage impact prognosis is a focus of strong debate calling in for more research.
The word ‘Nosode' is derived from the Greek word ‘Nosos' meaning ‘disease'. By definition, nosodes are homeopathic preparations of organic material derived from inactivated disease products, cultures of micro organisms (e.g. bacteria, fungi and viruses) or parasites, infected or pathologically changed material or decomposition products from humans or animals, rendered safe during the homeopathic manufacturing process. Nosodes are considered as homoeopathic medicines, if processed in accordance with a recognised homoeopathic pharmacopoeia in official use, or other officially recognized documents.
Nosodes are an integral and indispensable part of Homeopathic clinical practice, chiefly the chronic cases. A 2005 survey conducted by ECH revealed that 95% practitioners considered nosodes as important in their clinical practice. A study by the VKHD (Verband Klassischer Homõopathen Deutschlands) in 2005 among 200 practitioners reported an average of 33% of patient cases where a nosode turned out of vital importance for a successful homeopathic treatment of chronic ailments. Nosodes have long been used to effectively prevent epidemics and pandemics. The table below enlists some instances:
|1963||Gutman||Influenza||Influenzinum triple Nosode||Effectiveness of Influenzinum triple Nosode by 21 homoeopathic physicians in three countries revealed a composite effectiveness of 86%.|
|1974||Castro & Noguiera/Guaratingueta, Sao Paulo, Brazil||Meningococcal meningitis||Meningococcinum 10C||Administered to 18,640 people.
This study showed 95% effectiveness over 6 months
|1987||Fox||Whooping cough||Pertussin 30c||Fox concluded that Pertussin 30c as a prophylactic for whooping cough was 82% effective.|
|1996||CCRH/Delhi, India||Dengue||Dengueinum 30 (prepared from the serum of person suffering from dengue fever||Administered to 39,200 people at high risk. Follow-up after 10 days revealed appearance of fever, headache and body ache in only 5 persons.|
|1998||Mroninski/Blumenau, Brazil,||meningococcal meningitis||Meningococcinum||Administered to 65,826 people. The programme provided 95% protection from the severe bacterial infection after 6 months and 91% after 12 months|
|2004||Andhra Pradesh, India||Japanese Encephalitis||Homeoprophylaxis intervention (comprising of Belladonna, Calcarea carbonica and Tuberculinum)||Mortality dropped from 1511 children (1993–1999) to 391 children (2000–2004) after homeoprophylaxis intervention in 1999.|
|2007||Cuba||Leptospirosis||Homeoprophylactic formulation from dilutions of four circulating strains of leptospirosis||Administered to 2.1 millions and the incidence was significantly diminished by 84% in the intervention regions compared to the non-intervention regions. Infections in untreated areas increased by 22%.|
|2011||Lyrio C /Brazil||Flu||Nosode||Administered to 450 children in Brazil. Over the next 12 months the incidence of diagnosed acute respiratory infection or flu was 3 times higher in the placebo group than those given the prophylactics|
Time demands evaluation of the outcomes of implementing Nosodes in such epidemics and implementing it for dealing with present pandemic to strengthen the evidence base of such interventions. The challenges are numerous, be it procurement of nosode, preparation or prescription all the steps demand meticulous research and workout. Keeping it in view we present herewith an exclusive issue on EXPLORING NOSODES.
In this July Issue we present to you dear readers articles/papersto discuss Nosodes and its scope in Covid-19. We also have an exclusive Debate Section this month where we discuss the opinion/views Dr. Anisur Rahman Khudabuksh, Dr. Rajesh Shah on Covid Nosode and Marcus Zulian Teixeira on Isopathic Immunisation. We also present views of Dr. Ajit Kulkarni, Dr. Subrata Bannerjea, Dr. Partha Pratim Pal, Dr. Suvarna on different nosodes and lastly Interview Session with Dr. Isaac Golden. Hoping that we will meet upto your expectations; don't forget to send your valuable feedbacks.
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