Paraplegia is a form of paralysis that mostly affects the movement of the lower body. Paralysis is most often caused by strokes, usually from a blocked artery in neck or brain or damage/injury to brain or spinal cord, like what can happen in a car accident or sports injury. The rectification of the abnormal neuro-muscular functions causing paraplagia is possible using homeopathic medicines. The homoeopathic medicines shift to nano-scale at higher potencies (200 and above) and, in turn, the reactivity of the molecules increase at nano-scale. Therefore, the rectification process of paraplegic condition of the body has been evidenced, at potency higher than 200, with a faster speed.
Following the inception of the concept of homoeopathy, more than two hundred thirty years ago, by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843) the mechanism of action of these drugs could not be explained (Heidelberg, 1824; Hahnemann, 1842) and that has been the fundamental reason why such an advanced system of medication could not get proper recognition. Furthermore, the two basic tenets of homoeopathy – Similia similibus curantur (like cures like) and memory of water; have been challenged periodically by scientists and non-believers of homeopathy. Thus, this became a challenging scientific field for researchers to demonstrate the efficacy of this extremely diluted form of medicine in a scientific manner in controlled clinical trials and to explore its mode of action within the domain of science.
It was only the early twentieth century period when majority of the biological concepts were properly understood, and therefore, has rightly been considered as the period of renaissance in Medical Physiology and Human Metabolism. However, the most surprising part is that even with the advent of 21st Century, the mode of action of homoeopathic drugs was unknown and the 18th Century concepts were prevailing when the mechanism of homoeopathic drug action has been given by Prabhuji (2014).
For the cause of health, diseased state and the method by which a disease is cured, the following points have been quoted in the Organon of Medicine:
During health a spiritual vital force (autocracy) animates the material body (The organism) and keeps it in harmonious order (Para 9).
In disease, the vital force is primarily morbidly deranged, and expresses its sufferings (the internal changes) by abnormal sensations and functions of the organism (Para 11).
It is only by the influence of morbid derangements that our vital force can become ill; and in like manner, the medicines by their dynamic action on the vital force are able to re-establish health and vital harmony (Para 16).
As is well known, the metabolic activities of living systems are controlled by the biochemical catalysts – the Enzymes, having specific substrates to act upon. Probably, these are the vital chemicals for which Dr. Hahnemann had used the term "vital force" or "vital principles". Whenever, the complete enzyme or the holoenzyme is required for action, the apoenzyme gets attached with the coenzymes or cat-ions. In case of non-availability of non-proteinaceous part, enzyme action is interrupted causing thereby an abnormal metabolic state or the diseased condition. Homoeopathic drugs provide the missing non-proteinaceous part of the active enzyme and restore the normalcy. Muscle cramps are primarily caused by accumulation of Pyruvic acid (Guyton and Hall, 1996). Normally, the enzyme- Phosphopyruvate Hydratase that contains Mg as non-proteinaceous part assimilates Pyruvic acid and relieves the cramp. In case its activity is affected due to lack of Mg ion, this may be restored with the use of Magnesia Phosphorica. Considering all these basic concepts the mechanism of homoeopathic drug action has, later, been given and explained (Prabhuji, 2005; 2012; 2014).
The Paraplegic condition and its rectification
The Neuro-Muscular System (the fundamental part of the body systems) involves change of electrical potential along the membrane. During the disorders of this system, Rhus Toxicodendron (that contains sodium), Causticum (that contains potassium) and Belladonna (that contains calcium) are used to rectify them. Now, the question is how the process goes on? In the axon terminal several mitochondria supply energy for the synthesis of excitatory transmitter-the Acetacholine. At neuro-muscular junction Acetacholine are released into the synaptic space. Receptors are large protein complexes (having 2-alpha, 1-beta, 1-delta and 1-gamma units) which penetrate all the way through the membrane to form a tubular channel. The channels remain constricted until two Acetacholine molecules attach respectively to the alpha-subunit of proteins which causes a conformational change that open the channels (Figs. 1A and B). The opened Acetacholine channels allow cat-ions (Na+, K+ and Ca+2) to move easily through them whereas the an-ions (Cl-) do not pass through because of strong negative charges at the mouth of the channel. This creates a local potential change at the muscle fibre membrane resulting in muscle contraction (Guyton and Hall, 1996).
Normally, Na+, K+ and Ca+2- ATPases play important roles during this activity. In case the ATPases exhibit weaker role, mostly due to less availability of an-ion activators, the Acetacholinesterase enzyme activates which is attached mainly to the basal lamina – the spongy layer of fine connective tissue in muscle layer and destroys the Acetacholine attached to the alpha-molecules of the protein, resulting into constriction or closure of the channel. Therefore, the passage of cat-ions (Na+, K+ and Ca+2) is restricted causing – "No Muscle Action" or inability of neuro-muscular junction to transmit signals from neurons to the muscle fibres – the paraplegic condition. Although the three major cellular functions including the protein synthesis (apoenzyme) get energy (in the form of ATP) from mitochondria (Fig. 2).
Under such a condition three basic homoeopathic drugs, viz., Rhus Toxicodendron, Causticum and Belladonna have been found to be highly effective. Analyses have shown the presence of Na, K and Ca in them (in tinctures) respectively. The deficit of cat-ions, which inactivates the ATPases and activates the Acetacholinesterase, is restored by these medicines. The active ATPases, then, function as Anti-Acetacholinesterase causing re-attachment of Acetacholine to the alpha-molecules of the protein and the normalcy returns. The graph of conductance (Fig. 3) indicates the relative status of all these three cat-ions where fastest is the sodium moving down to potassium and the calcium is the slowest. Similar is the speed of action, i.e., the fastest acting is Rhus Toxicodendron followed by Causticum and the Belladonna is the slowest acting and requires quick repetitions (Prabhuji, 2005).
In view of the mechanism of action of homoeopathic medicines (Prabhuji, 2014) the rectification of the abnormal neuro-muscular functions may clearly be explained. The generation of electrochemical gradients by Na+, K+-ATPase for sodium-potassium ion-exchange across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis is of vital significance to animal cells. Several of the residues forming the cavity for rubidium/potassium occlusion in the Na+, K+-ATPase are homologous to the binding calcium in the Ca+2-ATPase of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (Preben Morth et al., 2007). The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca+2-ATPase, a P-type ATPase, has a critical role in muscle function and metabolism. In a study of nucleotide binding and cat-ion transport of Ca+2-ATPase it has been found that the phosphorylation of the enzyme triggers onset of a conformational change that leads to the opening of a luminal exit. This mechanism explains how P-type ATPases are able to form the steep electrochemical gradients required for key functions in the eukaryotic cells (Olesen et al., 2007).
As indicated (Prabhuji, 2014), the homoeopathic medicines shift to nano-scale at higher potencies (200 and above) and, in turn, the reactivity of the molecules increase at nano-scale. Therefore, the rectification process of paraplegic condition of the body has been evidenced, at potency higher than 200, with a faster speed.
Fig. 1: Cat-ion transport across Acetacholine channel.
Fig. 2: Role of mitochondria in providing energy to three major cellular functions.
Fig. 3: Relative conductance of sodium, potassium and calcium ions.
- Guyton A.C. and Hall J.E., 1996. Text Book of Medical Physiology (Ninth Edition), W.B. Sounders Co., U.S.A.; pp. 1148.
- Hahnemann S., 1842. Organon of Medicine (translated by Boericke, W., 1921), Reprint Edition, 1993; B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi; pp. 314.
- Heidelberg, 1824. On the value of the Homoeopathic Method of Treatment (quoted in the Organon of Medicine by Hahnemann, 1842; p. 35).
- Olesen C., Picard M., Winther A.L., Gyrup C., Preben Morth J., Oxvig C., Møller J.V. and Nissen P., 2007. The structural basis of calcium transport by the calcium pump. Nature, 450, 1036-1042.
- Prabhuji S.K., 2005. Mechanism of homoeopathic drug action: I. calcium, magnesium and sodium salts, Nat. Conf. Advancing Frontiers in Biotechnology for sustainable Agriculture and Health, Bareilly (India).
- Prabhuji S.K., 2012. Homoeopathic drugs act as nano-particles affecting the metabolism. Proc. Inter-State Scientific Seminar on Homoeopathy, Gorakhpur (India), pp. 5 – 9.
- Prabhuji S.K., 2014. Homoeopathic medicines are nano-particles affecting metabolism, The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. Photon (U.K.), 121: 725 – 732.
- Preben Morth, J., Pedersen B.P., Toustrup-Jensen M.S., Sørensen T.L.M., Petersen J., Andersen J.P., Vilsen B. and Nissen P., 2007. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump. Nature, 450, 1043-1049.